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Understanding Waivers of Subrogation

Suppose an air conditioning contractor, while installing a system for a new industrial building, has an accident. Another contractor’s employee on the job site suffers injuries when the AC contractor’s scaffolding collapses and falls on top of him. The injured worker sues the AC contractor and the project owner. The project’s contract included a requirement that the contractor assume the owner’s liability for any accidents arising out of the contractor’s work. Consequently, the contractor’s general liability insurance company pays the injured worker for both the contractor and owner’s shares of the damages. The insurance company, however, has determined that the owner was twenty percent responsible for the accident. It files a claim with the owner demanding some of its money back.

The insurance company’s action is entirely legal. Many project owners and general contractors, wanting to avoid this situation, insist that their subcontractors agree to a waiver of subrogation.

Subrogation is a legal principle in which a person who has paid another’s expenses or debt assumes the other’s rights to recover from the person responsible for the expenses or debt. For example, if someone hits your car in a parking lot and causes significant damage, your insurance company will pay you for the damage (assuming you bought collision insurance,) then recover the amount of its payment (subrogate) from the other driver (or, more commonly, from the driver’s insurance company.) Subrogation holds ultimately responsible the person who should pay for the damage.

Owners and general contractors want to transfer their liability to subcontractors, to the extent that they can. Therefore, contracts often include a waiver of subrogation agreement. In such an agreement, the subcontractor promises not to pursue recovery from the other party. That agreement might bind the subcontractor’s insurance company, depending on the type of policy and its terms.

A standard commercial general liability policy forbids the policyholder from doing anything to impair the insurance company’s rights after the loss occurs. This implies that a waiver of subrogation agreed to before a loss binds the company. Also, the sub’s policy may protect the other party if it names him as an additional insured. Under common law, an insurance company may not subrogate against its own insured. To remove any doubt, the sub should ask the company to add an endorsement applying a waiver of subrogation to the person or organization named in it. Insurance companies vary on the amount of premium they charge for this; some make no charge at all.

The standard business auto insurance policy has language similar to the general liability policy. Unlike GL insurance, there is no standard waiver of subrogation endorsement for auto insurance. Some insurance companies may offer their own versions of such an endorsement. Again, premium charges will vary.

Workers’ compensation policies require an endorsement whenever a waiver of subrogation is desired. This endorsement may apply on a blanket basis to all parties with whom the insured has written contracts requiring waivers. Alternatively, it can apply only to the party listed on its schedule. The insurance company may charge up to two percent of the policy premium for blanket coverage or two to five percent of the project’s premium for individual coverage.

Commercial property and inland marine insurance policies vary as to whether they permit waivers of subrogation even before a loss.

In all cases, a contractor or building tenant who is required by contract to provide such a waiver should check the relevant insurance policies. Policy changes should be requested if it is unclear whether they permit pre-loss waivers. The firm should consult with an insurance agent on all insurance-related contractual matters to ensure that the proper coverage is in place.

Risky Behaviors Behind the Wheel Can Lead to Car Crashes

Drivers do the strangest things when they’re behind the wheel, but how many of those activities actually cause accidents? Dr. Sheila Klauer, a senior research associate at the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute, and her research team examined driver behavior to find the answer to this question.

The researchers, sponsored by the AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, looked at the daily driving habits of more than 240 study participants in and around Washington, D.C. The drivers’ vehicles contained five digital video cameras and a “black box” that registered following distance, lateral acceleration, speed, forward acceleration, braking and other data.

After viewing videos of 82 collisions, 761 near-crashes and 8,000-plus incidents in which the study participants were involved, researchers identified four specific behaviors that increase the odds of having a crash:

·   Speeding-The researchers defined speeding as driving faster than prevailing traffic or driving at a speed “inappropriate” for conditions.

Speeding nearly tripled the crash odds.

·   Driving while drowsy-Drowsy drivers were defined as those who stare fixedly through partially closed eyes. The chief characteristic of this type of driver is lack of eye movement. Most drowsy-driving episodes occurred during broad daylight. This behavior also tripled the crash odds.

·   Becoming distracted while driving-The distractions that caused accidents required drivers to look away from the road for two seconds or more. They included such activities as applying make-up, dialing a cell phone, searching for a CD or reading behind the wheel. This kind of behavior doubled the crash odds, and the increased crash risk shows how quickly and unexpectedly traffic conditions can change. Even when the driver maintained a safe following distance, this didn’t prevent distraction-related accidents. For example, many of the rear-end crashes in the study occurred while a driver was keeping a greater-than-two-second headway behind the car in front.

·   Aggressive driving-Researchers defined aggressive driving as using a vehicle to menace another driver or pedestrian. This included behaviors such speeding, weaving in and out of traffic, running stop signs, tailgating and frequent lane changes. Oftentimes the driver exhibited a combination of these activities. Aggressive driving doubled the risk of a crash.

The researchers’ work has a number of potential applications. For example, the risky behaviors can be studied independently to determine how they contribute to crashes when associated with particular types of drivers, and videos and black-box readings can be used to develop collision-avoidance systems. But most importantly, for each and every driver on the road, this research shows just how important it is to stay alert and keep your eyes on the road at all times.

Key Coverage Options under Employment Practices Liability Policies

Uninsured employment practices claims can devastate a company. Many organizations find Employment Practices Liability Insurance essential to their risk management programs. Once a firm decides to buy EPL coverage, it must weigh several important coverage options.

A business can buy a stand-alone EPL policy or as an additional coverage on a Directors and Officers Liability policy. Adding it to a D&O policy may be less expensive, easier to manage, and the defense provisions for the two coverages will be consistent. However, a stand-alone policy provides additional limits, offers more flexibility in terms of defense provisions, and may offer broader coverage.

The firm also must choose the deductible amount (also called the “self-insured retention.”) A relatively low deductible means lower out-of-pocket costs when a loss occurs but a higher premium. It can also mean even higher future premiums or policy non-renewal if the firm suffers frequent small losses. A higher deductible reduces the immediate premium and may help lower future costs, but can also be a strain on a firm with frequent losses or troubled finances.

Policies can either obligate the insurance company to provide defense when a loss occurs or they can relieve the company of that duty. With a “no duty to defend” policy, the firm controls the selection of legal counsel, decides which claims to contest, and manages its reputation. However, this can involve considerable upfront expense — the firm must pay for the defense and settlement first, then seek reimbursement from the company. Also, the firm may lack the expertise in claims handling that an insurance company can offer.

Some firms, such as retail stores, medical offices, and restaurants, have frequent exposure to customers. These firms may be susceptible to claims that an employee harassed customers. Standard EPL policies and Commercial General Liability policies do not provide third party coverage for claims made by people other than employees or job applicants. Therefore, firms like these may want to add this coverage to their EPL policies. This will cost an additional premium, but the additional cost may be much less than the cost of uncovered claims.

Studies have shown that courts award punitive damages in a large number of employment practices cases. These damages can run into hundreds of thousands of dollars. While not all states permit insurance to cover punitive damages, firms in those states that do may want to consider buying it. Insurance companies may offer it subject to the regular policy limits, or only with reduced limits. The cost is normally some percentage of the standard policy premium.

EPL policies provide coverage on a “claims made” basis, meaning that they cover claims submitted to the insurance company during the policy term. The policies normally contain a “retroactive date;” they will not cover claims for incidents that occurred prior to that date. For example, a policy with a retroactive date of January 1, 2004 will cover claims submitted during the policy term if they occurred on or after January 1, 2004. The retroactive date can be the same as the policy’s inception date or some prior date. The earlier the retroactive date, the more claims the policy may potentially cover and the higher the policy premium will be. Firms buying EPL coverage for the first time or switching insurance companies may want to purchase early retroactive dates.

The correct choices for these options will vary greatly, depending on a firm’s characteristics and needs. An insurance agent experienced with EPL policies can provide guidance for these decisions. Because employment practices claims can be so costly, it is worth it to weigh these options carefully.

Know When to File an Auto Insurance Claim

If your car has become damaged in an accident, through vandalism or from another cause, filing a claim with your auto insurance company isn’t always the best course of action. For example, if your deductible is more than the cost of the damage, it’s a good idea to pay for the repairs yourself and not report the claim. Each time you do decide to file, even if the damage is less than your deductible, the report goes on your insurance record. Although small claims don’t affect your individual premium, insurance companies use information from policyholders to establish the overall premium rates they charge their entire customer base. The more accidents reported, the higher the premium rates the company charges.

Legally, you aren’t required to report an accident to your insurance company. The reason your company requests that you report every accident is so that it can protect itself against possible fraudulent claims. Documenting each accident helps an insurer spot a current claim for damages that really happened in an earlier accident.

If you already have a speeding ticket on your record, and your car is damaged at a later time, you have another reason to think twice about filing a claim with your insurer. That’s because in some states, if you file a claim for an at-fault accident and you have been previously ticketed, you may not be able to renew your auto insurance policy.

However, if there’s another car involved in the accident, or someone else in the car with you at the time, it’s important to report the accident. You never know if the passenger or other driver will file a claim on your insurance, and you should report the accident to make sure that your side of the story is documented with both the police and your insurer.

Another reason to report an auto accident involving another car or passengers is that injuries are not always immediately apparent. Your carrier should have a report on file in the event you, or someone else involved in the accident, sustain injuries that show up the next day and which require medical treatment.

While you should always consider carefully before you file an auto accident claim, you should never stockpile comprehensive claims. It may seem logical to file a number of small damage claims together; however, insurers watch for excessive repair estimates for comprehensive claims and your carrier may question the validity of the claim.

There is a growing trend toward nonrenewals and tighter restrictions on what is covered across the industry. Save your car insurance for expensive damage, and plan ahead so you can pay for the smaller repairs yourself.

Financing Environmental Loss with Environmental Insurance

Virtually every type of business has some exposure to losses caused by pollutants. The classic example is a factory dumping waste in a river, but health care facilities have medical waste, schools have fleets of busses and fuel storage facilities, print shops have inks and solvents, and offices have toners and other substances used in office equipment. Standard commercial general liability insurance does not cover many types of pollution incidents that could result in lawsuits. However, many specialized policies are available.

Every contractor has some exposure to pollution-related losses. Heavy equipment can leak fluids. Paints and solvents can spill at a job site. Fuel storage tanks at the contractor’s building can leak. A truck hauling hazardous debris from a job site can overturn. To protect themselves against these types of losses, contractors can purchase Contractor’s Pollution Liability Insurance. These policies protect the contractor against claims from third parties for bodily injury, property damage and cleanup costs, and will pay the costs of defending lawsuits. The claim must result from a “pollution incident” (as the policy defines the term) for coverage to apply.

Firms outside the construction industry may need Pollution Legal Liability Insurance. Insurers have designed these policies to address the environmental risks associated with owning property, operating a facility, or running a worksite. Manufacturers, hospitals, schools, power plants, repair shops, and fuel distributors are just a few businesses that need this protection. Like the contractors’ form, it covers injuries, property damage, cleanup and defense costs. However, this policy applies only to specifically identified locations. It can cover multiple exposures, such as new and existing pollution conditions, pollution caused by products the firm sells, liability from the existence of mold, and liability from transporting pollutants.

Many organizations have fuel storage tanks above or below ground. If they leak, the resulting cleanup costs can be very expensive. A Tank Pollution Liability policy will pay for injuries and damage to others and government-mandated cleanup costs.

Lenders run the risk that their debtors will default on loans because of a pollution incident. Lender Liability Pollution policies can address this risk by covering financial loss resulting from the default of a loan on an identified location due to a pollution incident. The policies typically pay the amount of the outstanding loan balance or the cost of remediation, whichever is less.

Many products are either hazardous themselves (such as fertilizers, fuels, paints and cleaning chemicals) or are designed to contain or store hazardous products (such as drums, hoses, tanks, and pumps.) Manufacturers, distributors and sellers of these products are vulnerable to liability for harm they cause. Products Pollution Liability policies cover injuries, damages, and remediation costs resulting from the failure of a product or caused by the product itself.

Property owners and remediation firms that implement pollution cleanup projects sometimes get nasty surprises in the form of cost overruns. To give these firms some certainty for projects costing $2 million or more, Remediation Cost Cap policies are available. These programs cover losses resulting when contamination is greater than expected, new contaminated areas at the site are discovered, regulatory requirements change during the project, or when regulators re-open projects that were thought to be complete.

The terms and conditions of all these policies will vary from one insurer to another, so it is important to review them carefully. It is also advisable to consult with an insurance agent with expertise in environmental insurance. An uninsured pollution loss can devastate an organization. Environmental liability insurance, chosen carefully, can help ensure your organization’s survival.

Reduce the Dangers of Driving in the Dark

With winter’s arrival, most people find themselves spending more time driving in the dark with decreased visibility. While you can’t change the fact that there are fewer daylight hours, you don’t have to be hampered by poor visibility.

Protect your night vision by wearing a hat and sunglasses during the day when exposed to bright sunlight. The retina in the human eye contains photoreceptors, which have pigments that change shape when struck by light. This change process is called “bleaching.” Very bright light, like sunlight, may bleach so many of the pigments in a photoreceptor that it cannot respond to any other visual stimuli for a while, which means your eyes can have trouble adjusting to the dark. The longer your eyes are exposed to the sun, the worse your night vision gets.

Consider taking a daily multi-vitamin to enhance your vision. In numerous studies and clinical trials antioxidant vitamins, such as vitamins A, C, and E, have been linked with eye health. They help to maintain healthy cells and tissues in the eye.

There also are things you can do to your car, and steps you can take while driving at night, to enhance visibility-

·   Clean your windshield at least once a week. Light is refracted through a dirty windshield, which intensifies glare. In addition, a clean windshield will have less reflection. Wash your headlights as well. Even a thin layer of grime can reduce the light headlights emit by as much as 90%.

·   Dim the dash lights. The dimmer the light inside the car, the better you can see outside. Your instrument panel should just be bright enough for the instruments to be readable.

·   Adjust your outer (side view) mirrors. Sit in the driver’s seat, and tilt your head until it rests against the window. Adjust the driver’s side outboard mirror until you can see the rear fender at the edge of the glass. Then tilt your head to the right until it’s at the center of the car. Adjust the passenger side outboard mirror until you can see the rear fender at the edge of the glass. These adjustments will reduce blind spots, and prevent the bright spots in trailing cars’ headlights from shining directly into your eyes. 

·   Avert your eyes away from the lights of oncoming cars. When oncoming headlights shine into your eyes, look at the white line marking the edge of the pavement.

·   Fill your gas tank with one eye closed. This helps you recover from “flash blindness,” the condition that results when a few seconds of brightness temporarily interfere with your night vision. Closing one eye preserves night vision in that eye, and you can use it when you resume driving while your other eye adjusts to seeing in the dark.

Though nighttime driving is a time of reduced visibility, you can make it a safe driving time by following these suggestions.

This Was No Accident and That Means No Insurance

Insurance companies design policies to cover their customers’ risks of accidental loss. A contractor excavating earth on a city street hits an underground telephone cable and knocks out service to a few thousand businesses and homes. A supermarket employee has partially mopped a floor when a manager summons him to help at the cash registers. A customer trips and falls over the mop left on the floor. Both of these are accidents, not injuries or damage that the businesses or their employees intended. Insurance will cover these incidents, but what about situations where the harm might not have been accidental?

The standard commercial general liability insurance policy provides coverage for “occurrences,” defined as “an accident, including continuous or repeated exposure to substantially the same general harmful conditions.” Therefore, for the policy to apply to a specific incident, the incident must be an accident. Moreover, the policy goes on to state that it does not apply to bodily injury or property damage “expected or intended from the standpoint of any insured.” The questions of whether incidents were accidents and whether an insured expected or intended resulting injuries or damages have been fodder for the courts for years.

Courts in every state have tried to develop a precise meaning for the term “accident.” The definitions vary somewhat, but they all seek to evaluate the responsible person’s intentions. For example, one state defines accident as an “unintended and unforeseen injurious occurrence.” Another state holds an incident to be accidental if the insured did not intend the resulting damage, even if he intended the specific act. Still another calls an accident, “something out of the usual course of things…not anticipated and not naturally to be expected.”  Therefore, it’s an accident when a painting contractor sprays paint all over ten parked cars because he intended to operate a spray-painting gun but did not intend for the wind to blow the paint on the cars.

Courts settle the question of whether a person intended harm to occur when they determine the facts of a case. However, they tend to rule that harm resulting from some actions can never be accidental. The high court in one state held that an act is not accidental when it is so “inherently injurious” that it is certain to result in an injury. Examples of this type of conduct are sexual molestation of children and firing a weapon at close range. Other states have held that a court can infer that someone intended to cause an injury only when a reasonable person can reach no other conclusion. Therefore, if two conclusions are possible and only one of them points to intent to cause harm, the court must assume that the person did not intend harm. The CGL policy would provide coverage for the person in this situation.

Public policy prevents insurance companies from insuring people against liability for injuries or damages they intentionally cause. Otherwise, people could commit these sorts of acts with little risk to themselves. Besides, businesses pay good money to insure themselves against accidents. It is unfair to these organizations when intentional injury claims raise the cost for everyone.

However, proving what someone’s intentions were at a particular moment is difficult. If your organization has an incident that you believe might result in a liability claim, you should report it to your insurance agent as soon as possible. Let the insurance company investigate, and know that your insurance is there to protect you from the consequences of true accidents.

Wise Up When It Comes to Auto Theft

In 2006, almost 1.2 million vehicles were reported stolen in the United States, according to the annual Hot Wheels study from the National Insurance Crime Bureau (NICB). The 1995 Honda Civic topped the most-stolen-vehicle list, followed by the 1991 Honda Accord. Car thieves continue to prefer imports to domestic brands, and vehicles that are 10 or more model years old over newer models. That’s because these cars have been consistent top sellers for many years and some of their parts are interchangeable. Thieves steal these cars for their parts.

Anyone can be a potential car theft victim. Since just 59% of stolen vehicles were recovered, according to the study, all car owners have a strong motivation to do what they can to protect their vehicles. To help consumers lessen their risk of auto theft, the Council of Better Business Bureaus and the Insurance Information Institute have joined forces to create the “Wiser Drivers Wise Up” program. Here are some of the tips from this program:

·   Don’t rely solely on manufacturer-installed vehicle theft protection. Experienced thieves can disable these devices, as well as unlock a Club and other such anti-theft deterrents. Aftermarket vehicle anti-theft systems are usually more sophisticated and are worth paying a professional to install.

·    Don’t think your old clunker is safer than a new model. It is also a myth that a luxury sedan is more attractive to thieves than a less expensive model. Older vehicles are usually stolen for their parts, which are no longer being manufactured; newer cars are stolen for their popularity.

·    If your car is stolen, contact the police immediately, preferably while still at the scene of the crime. Speed is essential to recovering stolen cars, since any delay means your car is more likely to be in a chop shop or driven out of town. In addition to knowing the make, color and model of your car, you should also know the license plate number and vehicle identification number (VIN). Keep a copy of these identifying numbers and your insurance card in your wallet, and keep a photocopy of your registration and insurance card at home, so you can provide information quickly to both law enforcement and insurance claims agents.

·    Don’t assume your insurance covers you for all the costs associated with having a vehicle stolen. Review your policy to see if you are covered for a replacement rental car after a theft, and if there’s a waiting period before you’re allowed to rent a car. Many people waive the rental car coverage, even though it costs only a few dollars a month.

·    Make sure you have roadside assistance. Your insurance company will likely offer this for a few dollars per term, or you can go through an outside company such as AAA or even your automaker. Be sure you understand the terms of the coverage.

·    Don’t overlook simple theft deterrents. Park in well-lit areas. If you park in a lot, resist the temptation to park near the exit, because it makes your vehicle a more likely target for thieves. According to the FBI, more than one-third of all vehicle thefts occur at a home or residence. Always lock your car, even in your own driveway.

Following these simple tips can help you avoid being an auto-theft victim, and minimize your damages and inconvenience in the event that you are one.

Goldilocks Workers Compensation Reserves: Too High, Too Low, or Just Right?

Workers’ compensation is often one of the largest items in a business’ insurance budget. Relatively small claims for injuries like cuts or abrasions can impact the coverage’s cost, but more influential are the larger claims for more serious injuries. This type of loss requires the insurance company to set up a reserve, or estimate of a claim’s ultimate cost. The accuracy of a reserve has important implications for both the employer and insurer.

Businesses may feel that insurers set reserves too high, and that can happen. Over-reserving unnecessarily inflates the insurer’s liabilities and reduces its surplus (net worth.) This in turn reduces the amount of insurance the company can provide without raising fears about its financial stability. Although the experience modification formula penalizes a firm more for frequent claims than for severe ones, over-reserving does make the firm’s modification greater than it should be, resulting in higher premiums. Finally, over-reserving distorts a firm’s loss ratio, which makes the firm’s business less attractive to underwriters.

Under-reserving presents the greater threat to insurers. If the company sets the reserve too low, the claim can develop more rapidly than expected. The company may eventually find itself with a large obligation for which it is not prepared to play. Also, company managers tend to focus their attention on large claims and delegate handling of smaller ones. This means that an under-reserved claim will not receive proper management attention; the company will not apply claim control measures until it is too late for them to make a difference. Inadequate reserves can also affect a company’s financial stability ratings. Rating agencies such as A.M. Best may decide to lower a company’s rating if it finds significant under-reserving. This may cause customers to move their business to companies with higher ratings.

Certain types of claims are more likely than others to develop into high-dollar ones. Back injuries tend to be very expensive. Aging factory or warehouse laborers who have endured years of stress may need long-term treatment and, in some cases, surgery. Depending on the worker’s age, he might not return to work. Older employees who suffer injuries to their feet and legs may also have expensive claims. These employees may have pre-existing conditions, such as diabetes or hypertension, which worsen the consequences of an injury, resulting in amputations or heart attacks. Other injuries may aggravate conditions such as obesity or spinal problems, making the worker’s diagnosis more severe and increasing the disability period.

Other claims may develop into large losses because of the worker’s circumstances. Suppose a two-earner household has been paying for childcare for years, and the youngest child reaches the age where such care is no longer necessary. The parents are accustomed to a standard of living where they live on the after-childcare income. Workers’ compensation benefits with no childcare expense may be similar to a parent’s wages after paying for childcare. This gives the worker less of an incentive to return to work. Workers who are nearing retirement also have a reduced incentive to return to the job after experiencing a period of disability, as they may be mentally prepared to stop working. Conversely, seasonal employees who need income to carry them through the off-season have incentives to prolong their disability periods. So do workers whose companies are laying off employees or whose plants are closing.

Employers should work closely with their insurance agents and companies to monitor workers’ compensation claim activity. Claims that fit into any of the types described above need special attention. The art of claim reserving is one of making educated estimates based on evidence and experience. Employers should verify that their insurers’ claim reserves are both fair and realistic.

What You Need to Know About Auto Body Repairs

According to the Council of Better Business Bureaus, consumers must be just as cautious about checking the credentials of the collision repair centers that fix their cars as they are when choosing contractors for home repairs. That’s because with more than 35,000 auto body repair shops nationwide, there are a lot of choices.

And, as is typical with commercial ventures, the supply of repair shops is a result of the huge demand for their services. According to the U.S. Department of Transportation’s most recent statistics, approximately 6 million reported non-fatal motor vehicle crashes occurred in 2005. Most of these vehicles ended up at a collision center, where the average repair bill was $2,200 to $2,300 and where 80% to 92% of the work involved auto insurance claims.

Statistics like these indicate you are likely to become involved in an auto accident and hence need vehicle repairs at some time during your driving life. If and when this does happen to you, how should you proceed?

1.   Never drive a vehicle after an accident. It could be unsafe for you or others until you know the extent of the damages and deal with them.

2.    Always insist on professional body repairs. This will keep you and your passengers safe, and preserve the value of your car.

3.    Take your car to be inspected at the auto body shop you feel most comfortable with. Your insurance company may ask you to take your car to its drive-in claims center before it is repaired. However, you can take the car to your own body shop and ask the insurance company to inspect it there.

4.    Get as many estimates as you feel necessary. Keep in mind that you aren’t legally required to get more than one estimate or appraisal.

5.    Use the body shop of your choice for the repairs. Your insurance company may offer suggestions, but it cannot require you to use a particular shop.

6.    Have the body shop explain the charges. Differences in repair estimates are common. A lower estimate may not include all of the necessary parts or labor. Be sure you are getting all of the repairs necessary to restore the car to proper working condition.

7.    Insist on original equipment parts, if that is what you feel comfortable with. The insurance company may want to use replacement parts as opposed to original equipment. Generally, there is little or no difference between the two except for price.

8.    Choose a body shop that utilizes the most current equipment and I-CAR and/or ASE certified technicians.

9.    Ask the body shop about its warranty coverage on the repairs it makes.

10.   Ask the body shop personnel if they will help negotiate your claim with the insurance company.

11.   Request an explanation of any hidden damage the body shop finds, and immediately report it to your insurance company.

The above tips can help you cope with the auto accident and repair experience as economically-and painlessly-as possible.